Spinal reflexes: miotatic reflex, muscle spindle and postural tone; di-sinaptic reflex; polisinaptic reflex and its possible role in walking.
Brainstem reflexes: the vestibular system and the vestibulo-ocular reflex; the superior colliculus and the orienting reflex.
Somaesthesia: sensory transduction, classification and type of receptors, coding of intensity, duration, location and modality of sensory stimuli; receptive fields, acuity, sensory pathways, somatosensory cortex, cortical plasticity.
Cerebral cortex: subdivision, properties, organization and functions of primary and associative regions of the cerebral cortex.
Voluntary movement: types of movements and their control by sensory feedback; motor equivalence. Cortico-spinal systems: pyramidal and extrapyramidal ones. Cortical organization of movement: primary motor and premotor areas; mirror neurons. Motor function of the posterior parietal cortex; fronto-parietal network and channels for action and for perception.
Basal ganglia: direct and indirect pathways for the generation of voluntary movement.
Cerebellum: subdivisions and their role in motor control.
Pain. Nociceptive pain. Skin nociceptors. Hyperalgesia and
allodynia. Pathways of pain. Aspects of pain perception. Spinal and
descending control of pain
sensation. Referred pain.
PRINCIPLES OF NEUROSCIENCE, by Kandel & Schwarz, Elsevier
or any language version of:
FUNDAMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE, by Squire et al., Academic Press.
NEUROSCIENZE, di D. Purves et al. Zanichelli
NEUROSCIENZE, Esplorando il cervello, di M.F. Bear, et al., Masson-Elsevier
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